Many different conditions can cause severe limiting lung diseases:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major inflammatory disease of the airways and an enormous therapeutic challenge. Within the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary emphysema is characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls with an increase in the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles but without significant pulmonary fibrosis.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by thickening and fibrosis of the alveolar walls. The etiology and pathogenesis are as yet unknown.
It is due to a response to some irritant, such as cigarette smoke, gastro-esophageal reflux, environmental pollution.
How it is done
Though the patho-physiology in both the diseases is different however the treatment protocol remains the same.
Stem cells administered intravenously accumulate in interstitial and cells administered via special nebulizer apparatus reach deep into alveoli. After intravenous infusion maximum no of cells reach lungs hence an effective therapeutic effect.
The cells provide Protection by differentiation of engrafted into specific and distinct lung cell phenotypes, and triggering production of growth factors which mobilizes endogenous stem cells and with a decrease in inflammatory cytokine. Protection from fibrosis also involves suppression of inflammation.
What to expect
In 80 % of Patients Respiratory and forced volume capacity increases significantly FVC > 60% diffuse lung capacity for carbon monoxide-DLCO > 45% of the predicted values
Breathing improves over time. Oxygen saturation improves and dependence on oxygen reduces drastically Patients state that they feel they can once again “catch their breath.” Mucous secretion is reduced.
Expiratory parameters increases from 20% to 39% (nearly double) of the predicted values
FEV1/FVC ratio dropped from an average 45 % before the procedure to 28 % at 2 yr follow up. This decline occurred due to maintenance of the FEV1 and an increase in the FVC.